Clive R. Haynes FRPS

In teaching and running courses in Photography and Photoshop I produce many notes for students.
These are available for anyone who may find the information useful.

Please note that the information presented on any of my web-pages, whether as 'Know-How', a 'Project', or whatever, is for guidance only.
I can bear no responsibility for how the information may be used or how interpreted or for any errors or any consequences that may arise.

In the contents list below
some links have yet to be completed - it won't be long!
Note: the links that are underlined
are active - the others, not just yet.

The 'How-To' techniques are predominately digital,
where a purely traditional photographic reference occurs, (Trad Photo) will appear for clarification

The DI techniques apply to most recent versions of Adobe Photoshop
however, where appropriate, a specific version is referred to separately

NB. I've been working and improving the information on this site since Photoshop version 4
(way back in the 'Dark Ages'!)
I've sought to keep up with successive versions of the program. However, such is the pace of change and innovation that even with the best will in the world, total re-writes for all pages and techniques becomes impractical - and what's more with so many millions of users, the information needs to be maintained for those using earlier versions.

New information and updates are presented as often as possible but in some areas techniques and links have yet to be revised. However, when an older version remains in place, the information presented can, with the application of a little thought and logic, be interpreted for use with later versions

Please note the 'Know-How' Contents List below, now includes several 'Projects'.
These will increase as more contents are 'linked'.
To view the full range of 'Projects' available, please click on the Projects Button on the 'Homepage'
If you wish to download information as a 'project', please remember the file sizes will be large as 'working images' are included with the instructions for the 'Project'.
For a direct 'link' click here .....

And Finally
If you would like to support the continuance of this website
or if you would like to say 'thank you' in practical terms,
please feel free to make a donation by clicking on the PayPal Donation button below.

*** Important Please Read This ***

The 'Photoshop CC 2019' update has altered the way some of the keyboard functions and short-cuts operate. For example, multiple undo is now Ctrl (Cmd) + Z, Z, Z, etc. with toggle undo / redo last state as Ctrl (Cmd) + Alt (Opt) + Z and to make a proportional change to scale in Transform the new default position is by clicking on the corner 'handle' and 'dragging', and also now, to make a non-proportional change in scale, the Shift key must be held down whilst 'clicking and dragging' (this is the opposite way around to previous versions). There are other 'improvements' that have a similar impact to previous working practices.

This website will continue to show the pre Photoshop CC 2019 methods but new pages and fresh descriptions will incorporate the latest changes. As I review older pages I will gradually add the options for Photoshop CC 2019 as I go along.  However it is to be remembered that thousands of Photoshop users continue to use to older versions and the methods described must remain relevant to them as far as possible.

A - Z

Action (download) for Digital Infrared 'Channel-Swapping'

Adding a Sky (and preserving detail)

Adding Colour as 'Texture'

Adding Fireworks to a Night Sky

Adding 'Mist' to Create an Atmospheric Scene

Add Sunshine to an Image

Add 'Sunbeams' (Method,1 using 'Curves' - A 'Project File' - Choose 'Improve a Landscape')

Adjustment Layers

Adjustment Layers - Transferring Between

'Alternative Processes'

Alpha-Channel Masking & Cutting-Out

Alpha Channel - Luminosity Masks

Anaglyphs - 3D Pictures (Making them)

Art History Brush for pre CS6 and CC Versions

Art History Brush for CS6 and CC Versions

Art History Brush as a 'Project' for pre CS6 and CC Versions

Arty Border (Painted-on Style) - How to Make


Back-up & Storage

Background - Blurring (superior method)

Bevel & Emboss (V6, 7 & CS)

Border - making around an image

Border - 'Arty' (Painted-on Emulsion Effect)

Bit Depth

Bit 8bit / 16 bit - Usage in 'RAW' Images

Black Clipping in 'Camera RAW'

Black & White see - 'Monochrome'

Blemishes - Removing

Blurring the Background of an Image (superior method)

Books & Journals

Bruce RGB (Colour Space Setting)

Brush Preset - Making a 'Digital Signature'


'Calculations' - Method of making a Monochrome Image - see 'Monochrome Methods' below

Camera - How Many Pixels?

Camera RAW (See also 'RAW Files')

Camera R AW Files - Applying Same 'Changes' to other 'RAW' Images

Camera RAW - Problem - Can't Open the Image

Canvas Size & Image Size

Cache (brief description re 'Preferences')

CD (Photo CD) - Opening Correctly

Channels - using with a monochrome image

Channel Mixer

Channel Mixer - Skipping the Introduction

Channels - Cutting-Out & Masking

Channel-Swapping (Digital Infrared)

Channel-Swapping (Digital Infrared) Photoshop Action Download

Chromatic Aberration - Adjusting in 'Camera RAW'

Clipping Groups V5 & 5.5

Clipping Groups

Cloning from layer-to-Layer

Colorize (Hue & Saturation option for Toning)

Colour Cast - Correcting (using 'Levels' or 'Curves')

Colour Correction in 'Camera RAW'

Colour Diffusion Technique

Colour 'Pop'

Colour Space (Bruce RGB)

Colour as 'Texture' - Adding

Colour Theory - Basics

Colour - the Psychology of

Combining Images on same page (see also 'Compositing')

Composition - a Guide

Combining Images - Also called 'Montages' or 'Composites' / 'Compositing'

Compositing - The Gentle Art Of

Compositing - Importing an Image

Compressing files

Content-Aware Fill

Contrast Control with 'Shadow / Highlight'

Contrast Range / Dynamic Range. - A review of contrast range from human vision to camera and monitor to printed output.

Converging Verticals - How to Correct

Copyright © as a 'Digital Watermark'

Corner Tabs - How to Make


Cross-Processing - Simulate Digitally

Custom Brush (Preset) - How to Make

Cutting-Out & Masking with Channels

Cutting-Out & Masking with Alpha-Channels


Curves - The Advantages of Tonal Adjustment in 'Luminosity Blend Mode'



'Depth of Field' - Simulate Digitally (see also 'Depth Map')

Depth-Map (for Depth of Field simulation)

'Desktop' for Photoshop

Diffusion Blur & Glow

Digital Infrared - Capture & Work-flow

Digital Infrared - Channel-Swap Action - Download

Digital Infrared - Filter Choices

Digital Infrared - IR Converted Cameras - Comparisons

Digital Make-Up for Portraiture

Digital Signature - as a Brush Preset

Digitally Simulate 'Depth of Field'

Digital Watercolour Technique

Digital Work-flow

Digital Work-flow Fundamentals

Digital 'Watermark Stamp'

Display & Cursors (Setting 'Preferences' for)

Dodging & Burning-in

Drop Shadows

Duotones, (including Tritones & Quadtones)

Dust & Scratches - Fixing them

Dynamic Range (Contrast Range) - A review of contrast range from human vision to camera and monitor to printed output.



Emboss ('Bevel & Emboss' via Layer Style V6 & V7)

Exposure control in 'Camera RAW'



File Types (JPEG, PSD, TIFF, RAW, etc)

File Size & Resolution

File Extensions & File Formats - Tracing a particular type

Filter - Applying Gently with 'Quick Mask'

Filter Choices for Digital Infrared Photography

Fill, Content-Aware

Fireworks - Adding to a Night Sky

Font Size Too Small on High Resolution Displays (How to change in 'Preferences')

'f Stops' - what are they exactly?

'Future History' using the 'History Brush'



Glossary of Frequently Used DI Terms

Glow Effect

The 'Golden Mean' (see also 'Thirds')

Gradient Mask

'Gradients' - using for 'Dodging' & 'Burning-in'

Gradient Map (use in toning)

Graduated Filter Effect - using 'Quick Mask'

Graphics Tablet & Pen or Mouse?



HDR (High Dynamic Range)

High Dynamic Range

Hot Keys - ('Quick Keys')

Hand-tinting in Photoshop V5 & 5.5 - A Guide to

Hand-tinting in Photoshop V6 - A Guide to

Hand-tinting -Updated Methodology

Highlight Clipping in 'Camera RAW'

Histogram ('RAW')

History Brush

History Brush - 'Future History' - Creative Use

History Brush - The 'Art History Brush'


Image for the Web

Image Size & Canvas Size

Importing an Image to Correct Scale

Incorrect Exposure - Correcting in 'Camera RAW'

Intensify an Image

Infrared Photography - Digital Capture & Work-flow

Infrared Photography - Channel-Swap Action - Download

Infrared Photography - Filter Choices

Infrared Photography - IR Converted Cameras - Comparisons

Infrared (Pseudo IR) effect


JPEG Files

JPEG Image for the Web


Kaleidoscopic Pattern Pictures - How to make


This is a very important subject area and I've devoted several pages to help. The list of topics contained in 'Layers Table 1' are intended as an introduction to Layers. However, the pages do contain much essential and detailed information. 'Table 1 originated using Photoshop 'CS4' as its reference, however areas have been updated to embrace changes introduced in later versions, CS6 and CC.  Many topics haven't changed in their essentials. Therefore with a little interpretation the information presented remains useful and helpful.

Upon accessing the first page in the series ('Understanding the Basics'), the topics will progress sequentially. Alternatively, any topic page can be separately accessed either from the list below or from the 'Understanding the Basics' page.

This section will be updated periodically to gradually embrace subjects and topics contained in pages evolved earlier about 'Layers'.

Layers Table 1
Layers - Understanding the Basics
Layers - An Introduction
Layers -Palette: Part 1- Basic
Layers - Changing the Position of the Layer within the Layer Order - Moving up and                Down the Layers 'Stack'
Layers - Linking
Layers - A More Complex Layer Structure
Layers - the Hierarchy of
Layers - Introducing More Options
Layers - Blending Modes & Layer Options - Menus Summary
Layers - Merging & Flattening (See also 'Stamp Visible below)
Layers - 'Stamp Visible'
Layers - Stamp Visible - New Updated Info for 'CC'
Layers - Renaming
Layers - Identifying a Layer with a Colour
Layer Mask (CS6 and most / later CC versions)

In this second Layers Table, much of the information originated before the later versions of Photoshop 'CS' evolved. The information is essentially correct. However, for those using the 'CS' versions a little 'interpretation' will be required at times as the palette layout and locations of certain items will vary between earlier versions and 'CS'. As soon as possible, these pages will be updated to include the later 'CS' and 'CC' versions.

Layers Table 2
Layers - Adjustment Layers (pre 'CS' Versions)
Layers - Adjustment Layer - Transferring from Image to Image
Layers - Clipping Groups (pre 'CS' Versions)
Layers - Getting to Grips With Pre Version CS
Layers - Getting to Grips With - Version CS2
Layers - Delving Deeper into (V5 /V5.5)
Layers - Delving deeper into (V6, 7 & CS)
Layers - Linking (Version CS2)
Layer Styles & Effects (V6, V7 & CS)
Layer-to-Layer Cloning
Layer Mask (pre 'CS' Versions)

'Lab Color Mode' for making a Monochrome Image - See 'Monochrome Methods below

'Lab Color Mode' - Working with Digital Infra-Red

Layer Mask (CC and most / later CS versions) For pre CS see Layers Table 2 above

Leaning Picture - How to Correct


Levels - Viewing & Setting the 'Threshold' of

Lightning - How to Make and Add to an Image

Linking Layers (Version CS2)

'Luminosity Blend Mode' - Advantages when working with 'Curves'

Luminosity Masks


Magnetic Lasso

Magic Wand Tool

Make-Up (Digitally) for Portraiture

Matrix - Multi-Image (Project File Download)

Masking & Cutting-Out with Alpha Channels

Merging Layers

Merging Layers with 'Stamp Visible'

Mist Effect - How to Add to a Scene for 'Atmosphere'

Monitor - 'Scrambled Picture'

Monitor Display for Font Size Too Small - Can occur with high resolution screens. How to change in 'Preferences'

Monochrome methods - Please choose an option below

Monochrome Methods - as a 'Project' - Click here to Explore as a 'Project' - Please read the Introductory Notes about 'Projects' before Continuing.

Monochrome Methods - Text only

Monochrome - Working with 'Channels'

Monochrome via Quick Mask

Monochrome IR Effect

Montage, Making Composite Pictures ('Compositing')

Mouse or Graphics Tablet?

Manipulation - Basic Techniques

Multi-exposure / Multi Image techniques

Multi-Image Matrix (Project File Download)



'Noise' - Noise Reduction in 'Camera RAW'



Optimising Photoshop - see 'Preferences' below

'Orb' - How to Make using Polar Coordinates


'Page Curl' method using the Warp Tool

Paths - How to make using the 'Pen Tool'

Pattern Pictures (Kaleidoscopic / Geometric)

Painted-on Border (Liquid Emulsion) 'Arty' Effect

Pastel Image - How to Make

Pen Tool - Making 'Paths'

Pen & Ink Technique

Perception & Scale

Photo CD - Opening correctly

Photoshop - An Introduction to Basics

Photoshop Courses

Photoshop 'Desktop'

Photoshop V5 crashes after installing P'shop V6

Photoshop CS - An overview

Photoshop Work flow - Fundamentals

'Planet' - How to Make (using Polar Coordinates)

Polar Coordinates for Rotary Distortion

Polar Coordinates to Make an 'Orb'

Polar Coordinates to Make a 'Planet'

'Pop Art' Image (Project File Download)


Preferences - Refer to your version below'. I've retained older settings as earlier versions of Photoshop are still in use.
Please note: The information refers to my personal 'preferences' and for old versions of Photoshop, based upon my usage, equipment and system prevailing at the time. However CC represents my current practice

Preferences - for CC and CS6

Preferences - for- CS3

Preferences - for - CS2

Preferences - for - 7 (original, old) & CS(1) Note: These are both old versions. Photoshop '7' is pre CS series and CS(1) is original CS

Preferences - for - 6 (original old Photoshop 6)


Preferences - Locking V5, V5.5 & V6


Preparing an Image for the Web

Print Quality (Trad film & wet darkroom)

Printing What You See

'Print Screen' - How to capture an image directly from the monitor screen ('Screen Grab')

Projects - A list of Practical Projects, complete with Instructions and Image Downloads for you to try

Project - 'Take One A Day'

Pseudo-IR Effect


Quick Keys - Shortcuts

Quick Mask

Quick Mask - Application with a 'Filter'

Quick Selection Tool


Rain (How to create 'rain' for an image)

RAW (RAW Files )

RAW Files - Applying Same 'Changes' to other 'RAW' Images

Resampling in 'RAW'

Resolution & File Size


Saving Your Images

'Scrambled Picture' on Monitor screen

Scanning - a Guide to Scanning-in

Scanning an Image to Correct Scale

Scale & Perception

Screen Grab - How to capture an image directly from the monitor screen ('Print Screen' facility)

Selections: Add / Subtract / Modify shape / Transform

Selections - Making, using Quick Mask - Excellent for difficult selections


Shadow / Highlight Adjustment

Shadow Clipping in 'Camera RAW'

Shadows - A Method of Softening & Revealing Detail

Shadows - Creating and Modifying

Sharpening - Introduction

Sharpening with Unsharp Mask (USM)

Sharpening - 'Sharpening Edges Specifically'

Sharpening with 'Emboss'

Sharpening with 'Hi Pass'

Sharpening with 'Luminosity'

Sharpening - 'Selective Sharpening'

Sharpening in 'RAW'

Sharpening with 'Darken' & 'Lighten' Blend Modes

Signature - Making as a Brush Preset

Sky - Adding to an Image

Sloping Picture - How to Correct

Smart Objects

Smart Filters

Snowstorm Effect

Softening Shadows & Revealing Detail

Soft-Focus Effect

Spot Colour

Stamp Visible

Stereo Photography (3D)

Still Life

'Sunbeams' - Adding to an Image (Method using 'White Fill Layer')

'Sunbeams' - Adding (Method using 'Curves' - A 'Project File' - Choose 'Improve a Landscape')

Sun Prints - how to make (Trad Photo)

Sunshine - Add to an Image


Tabs - Corner tabs - How to make

'Take One A Day' - Project

Test Strip - How to Make

'Thirds' (also the 'Golden Mean')

Three D (3D) Pictures

Tonal Control - Methods of

Toning - An Introduction

Toning with 'Colorize'

Toning with 'Curves'

Toning with 'Duotones'

Toning with 'Gradient Map'

Toning with 'Variations'

Toolbar - General introduction

Toolbar - Presets and an Introduction to Customising the Toolbar

Transform Edits - Transforming Size and Scale ('Perception & Scale')

Transparency & Gamut (setting 'Preferences' for)

Tri-Colour Images

Troubleshooting - 'Crashes' - Photoshop V5 crashes after installing P'shop V6

Two or More Images Combined on the Same Page

Type & Text V 5 & 5.5

Type & Text V6, 7 & CS


User Interface Font Size - Set in 'Preferences - Helpful if font size is too small on screen

Units & Rulers (setting 'Preferences' for)

Unsharp Mask


Vignette - how to make

Vignetting - Controlling in 'Camera RAW'


Warp Tool (Transform Menu) - Making a 'Page Curl'

Watercolour - Digital Technique

Watermark 'Stamp'

Web - Preparing Images for

White Balance in 'Camera RAW'

White Point - Adjusting in 'Camera RAW'

White Clipping in 'Camera RAW'

Work-flow - Digital Work-flow

Work-flow - Fundamentals




Zwirl (How to make a swirling pattern from an image)

The Zone System

Other Useful 'Know-How' Links
  Martin Addison FRPS